愛爾蘭戲劇與電影

[愛爾蘭戲劇與電影] 課程部落格

從廣博走向專精,從經典邁向多元:「臺灣愛爾蘭研究學會」成立緣起

高維泓(臺大外文系副教授)

原刊於《英美文學評論》26(2015):135-9。

「為何要在臺灣成立愛爾蘭研究學會?」這是本學會自今年三月成立以來,最常被問的問題。這個問題的背後隱含著幾種不同的疑惑:「臺灣和愛爾蘭究竟有什麼關連,成立目的是什麼?」、「愛爾蘭並非大國,這個國家有很多重要的作家嗎?」、「愛爾蘭有什麼可以給臺灣當借鏡?」。要回答這些問題,或可先粗淺地從兩國相似度談起。臺愛兩國分處歐亞大陸邊陲,四周皆為大海環繞,前者因風景秀麗獨特,被葡萄牙探險家稱做「福爾摩沙」,後者被慣稱為「翠綠之島」(The Emerald Isle)。在地圖上,臺愛皆是蕞爾小島,自古卻是移民者開墾及逃難者青睞的地點,甚至是外來/殖民政權爭奪的準軍事要塞。無論是離鄉背井,或是為反抗侵略者的痛苦經驗,都使得臺愛文化有著相通的基調。國族歷史的糾葛與時代的劇變,也成為文學創作的觸媒。
就當代文學而言,愛爾蘭作家對臺灣文化界產生明顯影響的,至少有喬伊斯(James Joyce)與貝克特(Samuel Beckett)。喬伊斯的現代主義作品《都柏林人》(Dubliners)及意識流小說《尤利西斯》(Ulysses)裡的頓悟(epiphany)、暗諭、象徵、獨白、文字音樂性與蒙太奇等技法,啟發了王文興、七等生及白先勇等作家,不僅開啟新的華語小說創作模式,也為臺灣社會注入新的文化元素。1965年,《劇場》雜誌首次譯介貝克特《克雷布的最後錄音帶》(Krapp’s Last Tape);同年,在當時臺大外文系教授傅良圃神父(Fr. Frederic J. Foley, S.J.)的安排與指導下,未經/躲避新聞局的審查,於耕莘文教院首演中文版《等待果陀》(Waiting for Godot),演出形式與內涵上衝撞了當時保守的舞台劇概念,對日後的臺灣劇場工作者產生不小的啟蒙作用。 這些例子都說明了臺灣與愛爾蘭並非處於彼此不相干的「平行世界」,而是透過藝術創作來抵抗傳統的桎梏,挑戰保守體制對於自由心靈的壓制。
在世界文學的脈絡下,愛爾蘭文學之所以值得學者關注,不僅因該島國曾經誕生過四位諾貝爾文學獎得主,也在於作家以英語創作隱含的後殖民性。 儘管有批評家認為,不少愛爾蘭人在英帝國統治時期,曾以從軍的方式執行壓迫者的任務,因此不是算是一個後殖民國家。然而學者凱柏(Declan Kiberd)認為,以膚色來區分殖民與被殖民者,「只是為了合理化某種刻意營造的論點」;如果把生來是白種歐洲人的愛爾蘭人納入該理論,則會暴露理論的矛盾(9)。以英語創作的愛爾蘭作家們,也曾帶給前英法殖民地的創作者許多啟示,比方奈及利亞小說家奇努阿.阿切貝(Chinua Achebe)的代表作《支離破碎》(Things Fall Apart),靈感得自葉慈的詩作〈二度降臨〉(The Second Coming);劇作家辛約翰(John Millington Synge)的《西部痞子英雄》(The Playboy of the Western World),不僅能在不同的後殖民情境下被解讀,比方千里達作家馬荼拉(Mustafa Matura)將其改編成《西印度群島的浪子》(The Playboy of the West Indies);在全球化的風潮下,該劇場景被置換成北京市郊的理容院,或是納入黑人移民的角色。另一方面,許多非洲、中東與加勒比海作家以「混搭」(hybrid)的方式結合英語與當地方言創作,彷若是喬伊斯挑戰殖民者語言霸權的海外接力賽。近年來愛爾蘭新銳與長青作家屢屢獲得國際文學獎項,如曼·布克文學獎得主安瑞特(Anne Enright)、巴利(Sebastian Barry)、班維爾(John Banville)等,以及多產的劇作家與電影導演,不斷「翻轉」大眾對愛爾蘭與世界的認識,引導觀眾與讀者探索人性深處。
以上種種不啻說明了愛爾蘭文學研究,無論是對單一作家做深度探討,或是有關該國文化的影響研究,亦或是作為文學文化理論的試驗場,都具有豐沛的研究潛能。然而,臺灣各大學外語科系的英美文學教程,或許因授課教師本身師承,或是引入美國主流大學的課程安排,多將視野聚焦在英美(經典)作家,導致學生對其他英語系國家僅存見樹不見林的認識,甚至無法分辨在英國文學史課程中所研讀的作家,其實許多是道地愛爾蘭人。過度偏重英格蘭與愛爾蘭英語作家的英國文學史課程,也忽視出身蘇格蘭與威爾斯(及其他大英國協體系)的重要作家,師生不自覺地內化了政治不正確的帝國主義品味。因此,在二十一世紀的此刻成立「臺灣愛爾蘭研究學會」,儘管與其他國家/區域(如加拿大、英國、美國、澳洲、法國、義大利、西班牙、南美、北歐、韓國、日本、中國等)相較,本學會的成立已晚,但也可說是臺灣外文學門研究的里程碑,意味學術研究將從廣博走向專精,從經典走向多元,從地域走向全球化,同時一批對愛爾蘭研究學有專精的臺灣研究者(包括國內研究所畢業或自海外學成歸國),正戮力提升臺灣學者的國際能見度,希冀與海外學者在此方面進行更密集的學術對話。
國際愛爾蘭研究學界所關注的課題,並不限縮於該國的文學作品,其他如政治、地理、蓋爾特語、電影、舞蹈、音樂、流行文化、性別等議題,近一世紀來已累積相當豐碩的研究成果,各領域亦有相關期刊與諸多專書出版。因此本會不僅希望引介文學作品給普羅大眾,也鼓勵各種與愛爾蘭相關或跨領域研究議題,相信透過臺灣的視野,不僅能深化對該國的認識,也能透過影響與比較研究,更客觀地了解臺灣的長處與困境,以及在地文化中的變與不變。在這個前提下,我們預計透過一系列之演講、讀書會、愛爾蘭之夜、電影放映與座談、國內/國際學術研討會、學術專刊、密集課程、邀請海外專家擔任訪問學者等,以推廣愛爾蘭研究。
本會自2014年夏天籌備以來,已陸續於臺師大英語系及書林書店舉辦「《都柏林人》讀書會」(計四場)與「《芬尼根守靈記》讀書會」(計三場),吸引相當多的師生與民眾參加。本會於2015年3月15日假臺大集思會議中心舉行成立大會暨第一屆第一次會員大會,愛爾蘭國會議員並親臨致詞,由來自葉慈家鄉斯萊戈(Sligo)的亨莉(Imelda Henry)議員朗詩人作品〈茵尼斯湖島〉(The Lake Isle of Innisfree)代表祝賀,成立大會並獲得海內外媒體廣泛報導。目前預計於6月18日晚上六點,於臺大外教中心小劇場舉行第三屆「愛爾蘭之夜」、10月份之各週六下午於臺大圖書館舉辦電影欣賞與座談、12月邀請廖勇超博士演講愛爾蘭文化議題,並預計於2016年3月舉辦國內首次愛爾蘭研討會。本會亦樂於與各校系所合作以上活動,讓大學部與研究所師生對這個領域有更多的認識。
在籌備臺灣愛爾蘭研究學會的過程中,本會在偶然的狀況下,得知諾貝爾文學獎得主葉慈,曾於1929年應臺北帝國大學文政學部矢野峰人教授之邀,來臺擔任聘期兩年之西洋文學講座教授,不料臨行前因幼子生病放棄遠行。 當年詩人倘若成行,必然有機會遍遊寶島,留下關於福爾摩沙的美麗詩篇。在葉慈誕生150週年的今年成立「臺灣愛爾蘭研究學會」,讓詩人的旅程終於成為「現在進行式」。
引用書目

高維泓。〈貝克特在台灣:當代劇場裡之跨文化演繹〉。《台灣社會研究季刊》69(2008):139-179。
– – -。〈葉慈未啟程的臺灣之旅(1919-29):「臺北帝國大學」邀請葉慈至文政學院任教始末〉。臺大外文系首頁。<http://www.forex.ntu.edu.tw/news/news.php?Sn=2998>.
Kiberd, Declan. Inventing Ireland. 1995. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. 1996.
第一屆臺灣愛爾蘭研究學會成員

理事長:莊坤良教授
秘書長:高維泓
理事:吳雅鳳、高維泓、梁孫傑、黃山耘、曾麗玲、辜炳達、廖勇超、謝志賢(依姓氏筆劃)。
監事:李勤岸、吳佩如、張家麟(依姓氏筆劃)。

本會官網:https://sites.google.com/site/irishstudiesassociationtaiwan/
臉書網址:https://www.facebook.com/groups/IRSTW/

 

導讀 安略特(Anne Enright)小說《被遺忘的華爾滋》(The Forgotten Waltz)

導讀: 一本倒著寫的懺情錄
高維泓(台大外文系副教授)

http://www.kingstone.com.tw/book/book_page.asp?kmcode=2018730437902#preface

已婚的男人能不能有紅粉知己?已婚的女子能否和丈夫以外的男性維持超友誼的關係?大多數人大概會不假思索地說「不」,因為這是婚姻的地雷,傷害夫妻間的互信。倘若不小心觸發引信,受到傷害的不只是個人,而是雙方親友及孩子,甚至付出難以挽救的代價。

這樣的判斷通常能迅速取得周遭人士的共鳴。如果發生外遇的對象是名人,此道德之尺(恥?)很快就能讓「全民公敵」定罪,迫使當事者為自己的愛情偏差行為認罪,身後跟著受到傷害的另一半,因著各種無奈的形勢,在符合父權社會的期待下說出「我願意相信我的老公」,或是兩人公開牽手以示感情修復,一場人間鬧劇暫告落幕。

弔詭的是,男性外遇比起女性出軌,受到的責難往往更容易給「輕輕放下」,大多數妻子仍會選擇原諒丈夫,然後與背叛者(即丈夫)攜手,將「狐狸精」告上法庭,讓「破壞家庭的壞女人」人財兩失且無地自容。倘若是妻子發生婚外情,少有男性甘於被「戴綠帽」,常常以離婚收場。然而,這樣的差別待遇能真能約束或壓制慾望的產生嗎?還是更加箝制女性的身體與心靈?傳統男尊女卑/悲的兩性關係,讓外遇的女性承受比男性更強烈的罪惡感,將女性限制在不是淫婦,就是好妻子、好媽媽的角色框架裡。

安瑞特的《被遺忘的華爾滋》是一本甘冒大不諱描寫男女外遇的小說,特別由已婚女主角的視角,娓娓道來和同樣已婚的男同事間的私密情事。這種女性悖德的主題在西方經典文學裡並不罕見,比方希臘神話裡以戀愛為糧食的愛神維納斯(Venus),不受婚姻羈絆,與酒神狄奧尼瑟斯(Dionysus)、海神波賽頓(Poseidon)、以至凡間美男子阿東尼斯(Adonis)都有親密關係,甚至不顧斯巴達王后海倫已婚的身分,協助特洛伊王子裴瑞斯(Paris)贏得美人心。十九世紀的美國小說家霍桑(Nathaniel Hawthorne)的《紅字》(The Scarlet Letter, 1850)、法國作家福樓拜(Gustave Flaubert)的《包法利夫人》(Madame Bovary, 1857)、俄國小說家托爾斯泰(Leo Tolstoy)的《安娜‧卡列尼娜》(Anna Karenina, 1877)、英國作家D.H.勞倫斯(D. H. Lawrence)的《查泰萊夫人的情人》(Lady Chatterley’s Lover, 1828)、約翰‧符傲思(John Fowles)的《法國中尉的女人》(The French Lieutenant’s Woman, 1969),以及曾改編成電影而轟動一時的小說《英倫情人》(The English Patient, 1992)、《麥迪遜之橋》(The Bridges of Madison County, 1992)等,皆是描寫女性外遇的經典文學之作。值得玩味的是,這些由男性作家描寫女性出軌的小說,女主角若非自殺,即是從此過著抑鬱人生。這些結局或是反映社會現實,或是為迎合出版商與大眾口味的最好安排,但令人不得不質疑女性外遇只能被千夫所指,真的沒有愛的功課值得再思?

小說設定的年代使《被遺忘的華爾滋》成為容易入手的作品:從二○○二年起,跨越二○○八年金融海嘯,結束於二○○九年。二十一世紀的讀者或多或少都受到這股經濟風暴的影響,愛爾蘭人對此感受尤深,特別是因經歷了「居爾特之虎」(The Celtic Tiger)的快速經濟起飛、外資湧入及房市擴張,以及倏忽間房地產崩盤。女主角吉娜的工作、婚姻、家務、置產、外遇就因著這些全球化現象轉變。從場景調度而言,書中的都柏林人生活,與喬伊斯(James Joyce)在百年前所寫短篇小說集《都柏林人》(Dubliners, 1914)已大相逕庭。《被遺忘的華爾滋》當中,人物不僅懂得品評高級法國紅酒,腳蹬亞歷山大‧麥昆(Alexander McQueen)設計的鞋子,披著愛馬仕(Hermès)圍巾,穿著三宅一生千褶裝,蒐集愛爾蘭名設計師絲柏‧康諾利(Sybil Connolly)的披肩,亦會搶買都柏林市郊的觀海別墅,選擇「休一年長假,好出海享受他的帆船」,在最夯的IT產業工作,出入隱蔽性高的五星級旅店。

這些充滿潮味的生活逸樂(包含偷情),顯示當今愛爾蘭人的生活經驗已經不像二十世紀中期作家如艾德娜‧歐伯蓮(Edna O’Brien)、威廉‧崔弗(William Trevor)和瑪麗‧拉文(Mary Lavin)等筆下的人物,受天主教教條制約,走不出保守閉鎖的鄉下人性格,而是受過高等教育、勇於投資未來財富,看重商業間人際脈絡,處事儼然有大國格局的恢弘。安瑞特的筆觸也不像喬伊斯那般犀利/刻薄,也不如前輩自許「使愛爾蘭人透過我特意擦亮的眼鏡,好好看看自己」的麻痹醜態,而是用一種輕鬆、幽默、自嘲的口吻,探索向來沈重的婚外情主題。作品中沒有潑婦罵街、道德審判、悔恨自責,或剪不斷理還亂的情感拉扯,沒有因為愛而生恨,或是因道義而將自己或對方鎖在一個變調的婚姻裡。

《被遺忘的華爾滋》的文學性在於打破一般言情小說的規格,女主角吉娜介入了男方的婚姻,儘管具有維娜斯泛愛性格的她,從未認為自己是導致對方離婚的導火線(更多因素是男方乃萬人迷及習慣性外遇),但如果她有一丁點罪惡感,救贖她的反而是情郎患有癲癇的青春期女兒伊薇。儘管此先天疾患可能隨時令伊薇喪命(「吃一片洋芋片,這孩子就會口吐白沫,倒在剛好路過的公車輪下,無庸置疑」),她自始自終不願意過度依賴愛她的父親或母親,也無意責怪任何導致父母仳離的人與事,只是努力地活出自我與接受現實,把握當下美好而豐厚的青春禮物。

這本小說地點設在愛爾蘭,描寫的人事物卻是全球化時代的文化縮影。更耐人尋味的是,這部作品涵蓋的時間是吉娜發生婚外情的七年間,但作者刻意讓各章的標題冠以一首英語流行情歌,比如一九五三年由Doris Day唱紅的電影主題曲“Secret Love”,或是一九六四年由Betty Everett演唱的排行榜冠軍曲“The Shoop Shoop Song”等。這些歌曲以象徵手法呈現男女主角的情事,以互文(intertext)技巧暗指各種戀愛進行式。這些關於單戀、熱戀、失戀的歌曲,雖以「副文本」(subtext)的方式存在,卻以不沈默的方式和讀者與角色互通款「曲」。值得注意的是,這些歌曲的流行年代,大都早於男女主角出生前,他們在全球化時代經歷的愛情風浪,在這些歌曲的襯托下,有了歷史的溫度。

如同安瑞特於二○○七年獲得曼布克獎的小說《聚會》(The Gathering),這本以女性口吻談外遇的小說,在出版後受到不少爭議與負評,主要聚焦在已婚女主角以過於坦白且毫無羞愧的語氣,詳細交待與人夫私通的所有細節,不僅觸動衛道人士的敏感神經,也挑戰評論者的道德界限,甚至讓讀者一邊閱讀,一邊痛罵女主角悖德的行為。安瑞特在一場關於《被遺忘的華爾滋》的訪問談到,她一點都不怕本書惱怒讀者,因為書中呈現的各種愛戀,無論是情人間的浪漫、熱戀、激情、踰矩的愛,都可說是真愛的一種形式;寫作這本關於愛情的書,就是為了讓讀者能為愛大聲爭辯。她甚至希望讀者能「享受」不喜歡女主角的過程。這個過程是為了理解愛情的本質,懂得愛才能拒絕不健康的愛,而非反覆屈辱自己成其奴隸。

顯而易見,《被遺忘的華爾滋》刻畫的是全球化後的都柏林人,安瑞特也呼應喬伊斯寫作的初衷,幫助憤怒的讀者好好看看令人生厭的自己。如果能平心靜氣看完這本小說,表示已從這本愛情秘笈裡獲得戀愛功力。如果感覺作嘔或不悅,該問究竟是否自己不夠勇敢?生氣的對象是自己,還是一個虛構的替罪羊?

導讀 安略特(Anne Enright)小說《聚會》(The Gathering)

「荒原遍歷︰一場見證愛的《聚會》」

導讀:高維泓(台大外文系副教授)

作者: 安瑞特
原文作者:Anne Enright
譯者:夏欣茁
出版社:書林出版有限公司
出版日期:2012/04/10
http://www.books.com.tw/products/0010538734#preface
數年前的冬天在土耳其西部小城Manisa參加一個研討會,遇到一個來自伊朗的講者。也許因為各種莫名的因緣,總與這位伊朗學者同桌吃飯。在陌生的城市閒逛時,也數次在路上巧遇。見面的次數多了,吃飯喝茶外自然也聊起彼此的國「家」。
這位伊朗講者年約五十,有些嚴肅,卻沒有學究味,也不像同樣來自伊朗、伊拉克等地學者那麼拘謹(或許是因為一時無法調適同樣信奉回教,卻相對自由開放的土耳其)。他有著學術圈外人才有的自在,不怎麼修邊幅,說話也帶點草根味,但也不覺酸腐或偏激。

共桌吃飯所聊的細節已經有點模糊,但我記得他說十八歲時因為參加反何梅尼(Ruhollah Khomeini)政權的運動被捕,蹲了好幾年黑牢。我注意到他走路有點小跛,以為他是旅途中受了傷,但他說是因為有一次為了逃避追捕,攀牆時跌落摔傷,之後就一直無法復原,但也不怎麼影響日常行動。有一天傍晚,我和他散步到校外,沒想到天黑極快,一下子我們就迷了路。明明校園就在圍牆的另一邊,可怎麼樣就是找不到原來的出口。他提議不然我們就翻牆吧!下一分鐘他就已經身手矯健地翻過牆,一邊拍去身上的塵土,一邊說:「別忘了我以前是跑給政府追的。」

或許因為他曾經是個政治受難者,所以事隔多年,他在我心裡的形象還是很清晰。在獄中他為了接觸西方知識苦學英文,出獄後重拾課本一步步完成大學與碩士學業,結了婚也有了小孩。好不容易找到教職,卻因為被人發現政治犯的背景而遭解雇(他說一方面是同事鬥爭的結果,害他被掃到颱風尾)。之後輾轉找到了新的工作,幸虧有人幫他說話:「他都這個年紀了,還能有什麼破壞力呢?」才僥倖待了下來。他的這些經歷我並不格外驚訝,畢竟臺灣也曾走過白色恐怖的年代,我只是看到了一個活脫脫在極權統治下倖存的小人物,試著走回他應有的人生。

我從旁觀者的角度聽著這位過去的政治異議分子講述過往,腦海總不免浮現一些問句:「那他的家人呢?他的父母姐妹兄弟有因為他的政治傾向而受牽連嗎?」我不好意思問的太過唐突,只說:「你坐牢的那段期間,會想念你的家人嗎?」我原以為他會開始談談他的家人,但出乎我意料之外,他語氣決絕地說:「I don’t miss my family」,說早就不和他們聯絡了,他們在哪裡對他也不重要了。

我在讀安瑞特《聚會》的同時,不時想起這個已經不在乎原生家庭的伊朗講者。是什麼原因讓他不願意再和「那個家庭」產生關連?「那個家庭」是否曾經在他最需要的時候,關心他、理解他、幫助他?還是兄弟姊妹大難臨頭各自飛,和他劃清界限?他的父母親呢?強人政權如何撕裂了他的家庭?他童年快樂嗎?他怎麼走上反政府的崎嶇道路?他的家人怎麼看待他:是鬥士,還是家族之恥、麻煩製造者?坐牢有改變他的政治態度嗎?如果出獄後和家人保持連絡,他的人生會比較順利嗎?我更想問的是:五十歲的他,後悔嗎?

安瑞特的《聚會》是一本關於「家」的書。不同於一般人對「家」的美好想像和歌頌,三十九歲的主角薇羅妮卡因為哥哥黎安的死,終於勇敢面對她的家其實是個無法醒轉的夢靨,她所受到的心靈創傷遠多於美好回憶。為了療傷,薇羅妮卡試著追溯這些家族創傷的幽微根源,嘗試拼湊外婆艾達未婚前的種種,如何周旋在兩個追求者,而被鬥敗的一方像鬼魅般遙控著這三代家庭。薇羅妮卡不斷透過回憶要說出造成哥哥死亡的真相,但這真相又混雜著太多難堪。要追究黎安的死因,得被迫將自己瀕臨破碎的婚姻攤在陽光下,得將自己從性壓抑解放出來,得原諒忙著生育(懷了十二個孩子,流產七次)卻任憑孩子被欺負的母親,得原諒那個無法確認是否被猥褻的自己,得原諒有著血脈關係卻彼此敵對傷害的家人,得原諒你深愛卻自私遠走的另一半……

安瑞特的《聚會》也是一本關於「愛」的書。在薇羅妮卡的推斷裡,外婆艾達是個渴望被愛的孤兒,因為愛而從應召站被贖出來。薇羅妮卡和她的手足們,為了證明有被愛的價值,幾次在愛情裡迷失碰撞,或逃離這個以愛之名傷害彼此的家庭。為了怕失去愛,對出軌的丈夫百般忍讓,即使已知所做的一切只是維繫一個有性無愛,卻又被小孩牽絆的空殼婚姻。為了讓自己在愛的壓力裡喘息,只得半夜毫無方向地飆車和嚎啕大哭。一切的委曲求全,只為承擔因為愛所產生的責任和後果:愛與恨彼此共生,是最艱難的人生課題。

若要解釋這樣一本沈重的家庭小說為何會受英國曼.布克獎評審的青睞(在此之前,安瑞特並不被賭盤看好;是的,英國人連這個也賭),在於作者有著看穿人情的犀利,描述各種因愛產生的掙扎或抗拒,迂迴或直接打到每個人的痛處。然而創傷不是不可療癒,而是當「失去愛」、「不被愛」變成一個迴避不掉的心理罩門,或是當愛變成咒罵的理由,我們該怎麼看待「愛」這門功課?該怎麼重新為「愛」而生存,恢復愛人的勇氣?對薇羅妮卡而言,當她誠實面對被傷害過的自己,才能從飄搖的婚姻中站起來,也才能從原生家庭給她的陰影走出來。當她重新發現「被愛修復」的自己,她的愛不再需要言語粉飾,也不再需要用道德或宗教來自我束縛。對她而言,即使人生不能重來,即使斯人已逝,是愛讓一切都不再那麼步步艱難。

有評者不解這本緩慢冗長,令人不舒服的小說為何會得曼.布克獎;也有評者認為這本小說選材無新意,敘述手法令人坐立難安,或認為作品充滿情緒的爆發力,直逼讀者內心深處,讓人又愛又恨。也有書評婉轉地說這本書實在沈悶,得百年之後才有人能了解。但這些褒貶對安瑞特應該不至是煩惱,因為這本真誠釋/示愛的書,最終給讀者療癒的希望。書中痛苦的薇羅妮卡聽到她八歲女兒在電話裡童言童語︰「我要告訴你一個字,那個字就是『愛』。」在一次訪談中,安瑞特透露此話來自她的女兒。這句話天啟般點醒了書中的薇羅妮卡,知道得多愛自己,才有能力愛人,而不再因恐懼失去而終日惶惑不安,或因愛而重蹈覆轍。

如果還有機會再遇見那位伊朗講者,我想告訴他,只有先真誠面對內心深處的家/痂/枷,才能和過去言和,「你現在需要的只是勇氣。」

 

安瑞特短篇小說集《照相》_推薦序︰「照相,你真的照相了嗎?」

[書林新書] 拍照 Taking Pictures

作者:Enright, Anne 安瑞特

譯者:吳妍儀

出版日期:2013/12/18

http://www.bookman.com.tw/BookDetail.aspx?bokId=10013113

[推薦序] 照相,你真的照相了嗎?

高維泓(台大外文系副教授)

在數位相機還不風行的年代,或是更精確的說,當我們出門旅遊不會以「照了幾G」來衡量「C/P值」,我們都是怎麼樣享受出遊的滋味?那些相紙無法捕捉的笑聲與星空,可曾有須臾離開我們的心底?愛人青春正盛的美麗臉龐,友朋間毫無戒心的嘻鬧分享、阿公阿嬤有求必應的慈藹微笑、初次見到連天大海的感動,似乎眼睛閉上即能潮湧而來,或許記憶中畫面是停格的,卻有著縈繞不去的各種情緒。有些畫面伴隨著想見卻再也見不到的某人、某個熟悉的氣味、肌膚相親的溫度、令人打從心底開心的剎那、或是被親近的人傷害的往事,卻不需要任何一張超高畫質的照片即能歷歷在目。那些畫面背後的縷縷情緒,就像酌飲一杯咖啡加威士忌後,烈酒的後座力與咖啡的香氣瀰漫鼻腔,無需拍照佐證。

安瑞特的《拍照》就是這樣一本奇書。這本書裡沒有任何一幀照片,卻是一本關於生命的相機指南。作者用一種狀似虛無的語調,焦距卻奇準無比的方式描摹主角們內心的憂傷、快樂、遲疑、怨懟、不安、以及種種數位畫面沒有辦法表達的複雜情緒。安瑞特的筆觸如蜻蜓點水,卻不費吹灰之力剝卸主角自我武裝的盔甲,甚至坦白地將性幻想、性傾向、性經驗和盤托出,既不會讓讀者感到羞赧,又能騷動每個人情慾深處那塊渴望被碰觸,又害怕決堤的敏感地帶。安瑞特對於女性情慾的描摹細膩可比擬英國小說家勞倫斯(D. H. Lawrence)的《查泰萊夫人的情人》(LadyChatterley’s Lover, 1928),但又帶著一種姊妹淘式的相互理解與告白。跟勞倫斯的主角們相較,父權教條已然不是羈絆安瑞特筆下的都會女性,而是一種近似佛洛依德(S. Freud)認為因情慾而產生的「生之本能」(Eros),或是「死之本能」(Thanatos)。安瑞特要「拍照」的就是擺盪在這兩種力量間的生命能量,讓主角也讓讀者「看」到愛與被愛的力量。

《拍照》是本短篇小說集,但對於以長篇小說出名與得獎的安瑞特而言,這幾篇故事的安排卻像是一部時間感強烈的紀錄片。儘管每個故事的女主角有著不同的名字與困境,但她們經歷的生命片段,卻大體上依年齡推進。有的為高中畢業舞會精心打扮,希望吸引暗戀對象的目光,後來發現只是追求「蠢蠢的幸福感」(a stupid kind of bliss);有的是不小心戀上已婚男人;有的是困在「友達以上,戀人未滿」的關係裡;有的預備結婚,心卻另有所屬;有的是愛上充滿雄性氣質,卻謊言不斷的雙性戀男子;有的是公開自己狼虎之年的慾望;有的是能和同性好友大談性事,卻彼此明爭暗妒。然而,這本小說集也不完全聚焦在個人的複雜情愛與性體驗,也讓讀者直視被困在衰敗身體裡卻不能說出口的慾望:在厭食症與憂鬱症裡翻滾,卻始終不放棄愛情,也沒有被男人拋棄的病人;在兒孫慫恿下登上越洋豪華郵輪旅行,當中一人卻意外譜出地下情的老夫妻;年近古稀之年,卻將滿腔情慾投射在裸身玩水的男孩們及隔壁老鰥夫的寡婦……。

我們可大膽的說,這部描寫與愛戀與情慾的短篇小說集,從微觀的角度來看,是一本從愛與性出發的家庭史;從巨觀看來,是一本跟愛爾蘭有關的國族史,但人物一點也不像是喬伊斯(James Joyce)在短篇小說集《都柏林人》(Dubliners)中描繪是「麻痺中心」(the center of paralysis)的悲哀產物。安瑞特筆下的男男女女,從青春、中年、到死亡都證明著愛的力量,嘗試接受這樣的自己,面對這樣的狀態,人生因而變得豐富了,也帶來更深刻的理解,對愛與性有著更細緻的感受與包容。

有許有一天我們應該回歸「照相」的本義,捕捉那最原始、最單純的感動,停格,顯影,證明我們真的活過並愛過了!

[Film] Route Irish (愛爾蘭大道, 2010)

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Ken Loach, director of “The Wind That Shakes The Barley," produced this film that features Irish mercenaries involved in the US-UK-led “peace" movement in Irag. The “peace" movement has been criticized, particularly by left-wing activists, at the price of killing innocent civilians, abusing hostages, and so forth. No one is clearly responsible for the injustice that caused thousands and thousands of innocent deaths in Middle East, and political scandals are being covered up. What is also noteworthy is that Ireland may be free of old sectarian politics in the 21st century, but may be even more trapped in the antagonism between world powers. For the recent Irish anti-war movement, see:

http://vimeo.com/8594795

Jim O’Hanlon: The Buddhist of Castleknock (2002)

Set on a Christmas in Celtic-Tiger Ireland, Jim O’Hanlon’s The Buddhist of Castleknock presents a home reunion which is relatively difficult to its members due to the visit of a black daughter-in-law-to-be, Rai. Her visit prompts the Irish family to to open its door to non-Christian traditions, incurring complaints from the host mother who has been tried hard to keep Christmas rituals. What is interesting is that Buddhism is introduced by Rai, an African young lady living in London. Her visit also reveals the fact that racist attacks could happen 3 or 4 times a week in the neighborhood of Castleknock, whereas the residents are not even aware of any. The play is by category a comedy, providing the audience with a new perspective to a rapidly globalized Ireland at the turn of the 21st century.

http://fishamble.com/the-buddhist-of-castleknock

Martin McDonagh: The Beauty Queen of Leenane (1996)

The Beauty Queen of Leenane (1996) presents a tense mother-and-daughter relationship in a relatively closed community in the west of Ireland during the 1970s/1980s. It is a black comedy with Maureen and her mother, Maggie, both of whom constantly torment each other through all sorts of domestic violence. The play also faithfully presents an Irish family conditioned by a large wave of emigration in the mid-twentieth century. Those left behind and those having to leave home all endure pain, toil, and even mental breakdown.

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[Film] The Butcher Boy (屠夫男孩, 1997)

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Patrick McCabe’s The Butcher Boy is a masterpiece of magic realism with the elements of black comedy. From a dysfunctional family, the child narrator, much longing for friendships, is an outcast and often jeered as “pig” in his community. His self-realization and revenge are through a series of acts of violence that petrifies his neighbors. This book also caricatures those Irish Catholics who are superstitious and the insular society in the mid-twentieth century. The novel is highly entertaining, and its film, directed by Neil Jordan, is well made.

The Chinese translation of The Butcher Boy is available:

http://www.books.com.tw/exep/prod/booksfile.php?item=0010346848

[Film] The Nephew (親密訪客, 1998)

Migration has two levels of meaning: opening itself up to the outside world and accommodating the exotic/unfamiliar. Ireland has a long time been a country which exported a large number of migrant workers: skilled, half-skilled, and unskilled. Some direct consequences include, for instance, mixed marriages (across different ethnicities) and intense participation in globalization. The Irish film, The Nephew, produced in 1998, implies the advent of globalization in Ireland—with a half-black Irish character, Chad (Hill Harper).

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PS. The film, starring Pierce Brosnan (the former 007 agent), is eventually an English language film. This clip here is given an Gaelic voice-over.

Murals in west Belfast.

In west Belfast, Catholic and Protestant communities live side by side on Falls road and Shankill Road respectively, but there are walls separating the two neighborhoods. There are murals featuring their histories and demands. Although the tensions between the two communities are relatively less strained now, the antagonisms are still there—visibly on the wall.

“The Peace Walls/Lines" in Belfast.

Belfast, the capital of Northern Ireland, is not a particular big city, while there exists “The Peace Lines", or “The Peace Walls", to separate Catholic and Protestant communities. The walls, built in 1969 after the Northern Ireland riots/Troubles, were initially meant to be temporary but end up being more permanent, and grow even higher with metal wires. Media have tended to compare these long walls with the Berlin Wall–whose function was more notorious. The “Peace" Walls, not tore down yet, are the embodiment of political and religious ideologies that have traumatized those living near or beyond the walls in Ireland. There is a gate for people on two sides to commute, but it only opens at certain hours of a day under supervision.

For more information on “The Peace Lines", see

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peace_lines

[Film] Hunger (2008)

This film features Bobby Sands, the IRA volunteer who led the Irish hunger strike in 1981 and the “no wash" protest, as a way to regain political status and equal rights with Protestants. The strike was ruthlessly crushed down by the troops of Ms. Margaret Thatcher’s government. The strike was called off after 10 prisoners had starved to death and drew the attention of the world media. Bobby Sands’s funeral was attended by 100,000 people in Ireland. This film won the prestigious Camera d’Or award for first-time filmmakers.

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Anne Devlin: After Easter (1994)

Anne Devlin’s play, After Easter, written in 1994 and portraying how the three sisters of a family from Belfast resist or echo the given political ideologies, could be thought of as a feminist work tackling a mixture of social issues: Irish nationalism, Catholicism, Protestantism, capitalism, and so forth. It could be argued that the playwright’s representation of female experiences in seeking an individual identity is a theatrical practice that also mirrors the concerns both of postmodern and revisionist critics. You may see how the playwright, through the story of a family highly affected by conflicting politics, reveals the weaknesses of relevant ideologies in Ireland. More profoundly, she uses the funeral of the protagonists’ father as a “ritual” in which a politically-divided family is finally able to reconcile itself to a common identity beyond various ideological constraints; this reconciliation is mainly reached through the female characters’ shared experiences of exile and the awakening of their desire.

The following clip is Greta’s monologue in the beginning of the play about her self-protection and how much she needs love but in vein:

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[Film] Five Minutes of Heaven (2009)

Five Minutes of Heaven (2006), starring Liam Neeson and James Nesbitt, is about a painful process of reconciliation between Joe Griffin and Alistair Little. Joe’s brother, Tim, was killed by Alistair during the Northern Irish Troubles in 1975, and he had to take all the blames from his mom, for he “could’ve done something" to stop this. Alistair later lives as a “broken man" and can’t forgive himself. Now they are meeting each other after 33 years of that killing…..

[Trailer]

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You may see part of the film here:

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[Short Film] Forgiveness (2006)

The nearly 700-hundred-year British Rule had kept Ireland a troubled state, and the long-term bloodshed and sacrifices has made some people’s hearts “enchanted to a stone" (See W.B. Yeats’ poem “Easter 1916″). It is not easy for a people to get over a national trauma like this, but now we have an Irish film about FORGIVENESS in 2006.

[Forgiveness]

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Character: Kevin O’Higgins (Irish Prime Minister, 1892-1927); Erskine Hamilton Childers (4th President of Ireland, 1973-1974; his father—Robert Erskine Childers—was sentenced to death after the Easter Rising). Kevin O’Higgins was later assassinated during the Irish Civil War

Background: Irish Civil War (1922-1923)

[Script]:

How’s your Irish [language], son? . . . Keep it up!

They called me the Englishman, but remember it is for Ireland I die.

There is a task you must do for me after . . . after I am shot.

Promise me, I want you to promise me you will visit each man whose name appear on this list.

They are men who signed my death warrant.

I once had pleasure of meeting your father. An interesting man.

Funerals on this [kind of weather]? It’s not decent.

I tell you, Francis, the more order in our society, we save funerals from this kind of weather.

It is in your diary, Minister.

Childers’s boy.

Have a seat.

You have him searched?

You wished to see me.

I understand you have something to say regarding your father.

Before he was executed. Yes? . . . for assisting arms of rebellion against this lawful state. Yes? Continue.

. . . the man who had signed his death warrant.

The warrant for his legal execution.

And I would offer my hand . . . to each of them.

I would shake the hands with each man who signed that warrant, and tell him, each man, that I forgive him. As my father’s son, I forgive him.

It was his last wish that the bitterness in Ireland should end.

I am sure your father will be very pleased for your conduct.

I forgive you for the execution of my father who I loved very dearly.

Francis will see you out.

[Film] Kings (2007)

Kings, written and directed by Tom Collins, is based on Jimmy Murphy’s play, The Kings of the Kilburn High Road (2000). This film was selected as Ireland’s official entry for the 2008 Academy Awards in the best foreign-language film category.

About the message the film intends to bring the audience, according to the director in an interview, “I know it’s always dangerous to have messages in films, but I hope people will watch Kings and empathize with the whole experience of emigrants in a foreign land and how hard it is for them to find their way home. . . . This is a universal story – it’s not just about paddies."
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Jimmy Murphy: The Kings of the Kilburn High Road (2000)

The play features the hardships and disillusions of Irish migrant workers in Camden town, north west London. They worked on the building sites and in the underground tunnels, and sent money home if possible. Most of them left home at their early 20s for England with dreams and hoped one day they could return home with fortune, while many of them died in destitution. They are indeed on the lower/lowest rung of the social hierarchy of both English and Irish societies, while their experiences have often been left out of the grand narratives of Irish and English history.

The reason why the life of Irish migrants always centers around pubs is because, as Richard Kearney suggests, “it was the one place where they could find the warm relaxed atmosphere that becomes a substitute for home" (p. 56, emphasis mine; from Migrations: The Irish at Home & Abroad). Here are the songs which the characters sing to amuse themselves or/and give vent to anger:
1) The Rare Ould Time
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2) The Boys from the County Mayo
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3) Go on Home British Soldiers
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4) The Ballad of James Connolly
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5) The Mountains of Mourne
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Tom Murphy: A Whistle in the Dark (1961)

As the Irish like to sing and have a long folk song tradition, the songs in any Irish play may serve as subtexts which suggest the background, personality, experience, and/or mentality of a character. In this play, Dada has a high self-esteem of himself and a high expectation of all his sons, but he does not realize that the way he educated his boys has caused irretraceable harm on them–almost as child abuse. What’s more noteworthy is that Ireland can’t keep them at home–with jobs, while they, like many Irish at the time, had to be away as migrant workers overseas.

Here are the links to some of the songs in this play:

1) Hugo’s song: “Looby Loo" (as a Children’s song)

http://www.we7.com/#/song/The-Birthday-Bunch/Looby-Loo+14

2) Dada’s song: “I Hear You Calling Me"

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3) Dada’s song: “Oft in the Stilly Night" (based up Thomas Moore’s poem “The Light of Other Days")

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[Short Film] Fluent Dysphasia (2004)

This is a black comedy about the Irish Language in today’s Ireland. Enjoy it!!

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[Short Film] My Name is Yu Ming (2003)

The study of the Gaelic language is a compulsory subject in Irish school and a tested subject for the Leaving Certificate (for senior high students before they can graduate). Without the Leaving Cert., students cannot apply for universities. However, after so many decades’ promotion of this language, only less than 30% of the Irish can use this language in daily conversation, and many parents and students hope that this subject can be waived from exam, since they don’t speak this language at home. Though Irish Gaelic is the official language of Ireland, English is still the mostly widely spoken language in this country. In the following film, you may judge whether this language is dying in today’s Ireland.

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Meryl Streep in Brian Friel’s “Dancing at Lughnasa” (1990)

Dancing at Lughnasa is set in 1936 in the fictional town of Ballybeg, where many of Friel’s plays take place. The play is more than just about five sisters who managed to survive together but failed, while it contains a strong criticism against a parochial Ireland under Catholic rule. What is extraordinary is that the playwright juxtaposes African and Irish (pagan) cultural elements to suggest the possibility of transforming Ireland into a multicultural state. Friel has stated that two of his (unskilled) aunts did “disappear” in the dark streets of London and he never saw them again after they emigrated for work.

Meryl Streep took the leading role as Kate in this film adaption in 1998.

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Brain Friel: Translations (1980)

Brian Friel’s Translations is one of the founding plays of the Field Day Theatre Company, whose agenda includes to establish a “Fifth Province” where Irish people can see themselves and the knotty political issues “outside the box.” In this play, Friel offers a perspective on how the Irish lost their mother tongue and went for English. It may be argued that the Irish had some responsibilities for their dying language, Irish Gaelic. However, it is a view challengeable.

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Samuel Beckett: Krapp’s Last Tape (1958)

To understand Krapp’s Last Tape better, it is important to focus on the moments of silence which Beckett specifies on the script. Those silent moments are not really voiceless but reflect some state of mind of the protagonist. Some silent moments are described in the stage directions which deserve special attention.

Krapp’s Last Tape was first performed by Patrick Magee in 1958. Beckett did not know him personally before, but was simply fascinated by his cracked voice. The following clip is his taped performance in 1972.

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Harold Pinter (1930-2008), actor, playwright, and the Novel Prize winner for literature in 2005, took the role of Krapp in 2006. Before that his health had been failing and he died of liver cancer in 2008.

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[Song] The Hymn “The Day is Over" in Samuel Beckett’s Krapp’s Last Tape (1958)

Samuel Beckett’s Krapp’s Last Tape (1958) features an old, grumpy man’s reminiscence of his past love, alongside his regret for not being young again. For some reason he has lost the stamina of life, living each day (and likely each year) with meaningless repetitions. Though loneliness and distress have almost dominated his entire being, he seems to be comforted by the Christian hymn as follows. The hymn, however, is sometimes used on funeral occasions. Is Krapp really comforted by the hymn? Does the song get him more anxious?

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[Now The Day is Over]

Lyricist: Sabine Baring-Gould, from The Church Time, Feb 16, 1867.

Now the day is over,
Night is drawing nigh,
Shadows of the evening
Steal across the sky.

Now the darkness gathers,
Stars begin to peep,
Birds, and beasts and flowers
Soon will be asleep.

Jesus, give the weary
Calm and sweet repose;
With Thy tenderest blessing
May mine eyelids close.

Through the long night watches
May Thine angels spread
Their white wings above me,
Watching round my bed.

Sean O’Casey: Juno and the Paycock (1924)

Sean O’Casey’s Juno and the Paycock is fused with realistic and expressionist dramaturgies. Apart from being a critique of the social inequality and violence that created the Irish Free State, this play is suitable for style analysis in relation to its background.

In his early career, Alfred Hitchcock adapted Juno and the Paycock into a film in 1930. The ending of the film is somehow different from that of the play.

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Sean O’Casey and His Times

Sean O’Casey’s working-class background brought him close-up observation on the deprivation of Dublin’s slum dwellers. However, his presentations of their life irritated the audiences and the authorities. To some extent he spoke for the people on the social margin, while he did not make them look better as expected. Do you think his play has genuine concerns for workers universally in line with socialist agenda? What does he want to express through his Dublin Trilogy: The Shadow of a Gunman (1923), Juno and the Paycock (1924), The Plough and the Stars (1926)?

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J.M. Synge: The Playboy of the Western World (1907)

Synge’s The Playboy of the Western World was sensational and controversial, as the playwright steered the Abbey Theatre and the Irish Revival into a dangerous state that few people knew what would be next and whether the play had a political and religious agenda. He created a classic woman figure, Pegeen, who dares to say what she likes, wears what she wants, and overthrows the stereotype of “good” Irish women (or angles in the house in general). Christy’s patricide, though failed, incurred suspicions from all sides of the society at the time for its insinuations.

The following clip is about the time when Old Mahon comes into Pegeen’s pub for the first time (in Act 2):

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Interview with Geoff Elliott, who directed “A Noise Within" production of this play and played the role of Old Mahon in 2010:

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A “Fictional" Documentary: Man of Aran (1934)

Man of Aran, a “fictional” documentary made by Robert J. Flaherty about life on the Aran Islands. The documentary has been largely criticized for its outdated and stereotypical presentation of fishermen’s life, for people on the island had discarded such a primitive way of fishing when the documentary was being made. The documentary is therefore not a faithful one but a blind response to a romantic expectation of Ireland–for outsiders. However, to some extent the documentary is still of value for reconstructing a kind of Irish life which has disappeared for good.

If interested, you may read Martin McDonagh’s play, The Cripple of Inishmaan (1996), which satirizes the way in which Flaherty made this problematic documentary.

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J.M. Synge: Riders to the Sea (1903)

Riders to the Sea was written in the beginning of J.M Synge’s career. He was encouraged by W.B. Yeats to find inspirations from Gaelic Ireland as a support of the ongoing Irish Literary Revival. This play begins with the strong sense of death, and human life appears so vulnerable when the nature takes the upper hand. These people can only rely on God for more mercy, while some kind of bitter irony comes out of their prayers. How important is religion for them, while God always fails them? This Irish play has been adapted for opera. The following clip presents a summary of the play, before the opera begins:

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[Song] Folk songs in Lady Gregory’s The Rising of the Moon (1907)

Ireland has a long tradition of folk songs (and folklore) which carries the collective memory, experiences, and wisdom of the people. Irish revivalists at the turn of the 20th century incorporated this tradition with their agenda. You will also find many folk songs in many Irish dramas of different periods. These songs and their lyrics all have significance to be studies, alongside the texts.

You may refer to the scripts I passed on in class and listen to the song again. For example:

“Johnny Harte": http://www.we7.com/#/song/Jimmy-Halpin/Johnny-Harte

“The Rising of the Moon":

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W.B. Yeats: Purgatory (1938)

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W.B. Yeats’ Purgatory is metaphorically about the fall of the Anglo-Irish Ascendancy, although it appears to be a story about parricide and class conflicts. How do you interpret this play? It can be a text for both psychoanalysis and postcolonial studies.

President Obama’s visit to Ireland on 23 May 2011

President Barack Obama’s great-great-great-grandfather, Falmouth KEARNEY, left Ireland in distress in 1850 during the Famine. It is likely that he would never have thought his family would give birth to an American President in the 21st century. (Another American President with an Irish root was J.F. Kennedy, who visited Ireland in 1963.)

You may see President Obama’s speech to a huge crowd in Dublin and were greeted with hails here:

http://www.rte.ie/news/2011/0523/obamab.html

President Obama had a drink with locals in his hometown, Moneygall:

http://news.travel.aol.com/2011/05/23/barack-obama-ireland-trip-president-chugs-a-guinness-photos-v/

Question: How do you interpret President Obama’s “return" to Ireland and the Queen’s state visit to Ireland (see the next post)?

The Queen’s 4-Day Visit to Ireland in May 2011.

The following clip was the Queen’s state speech at Dublin Castle, the former headquarter of the British administration in Ireland. You can see that she greeted guests in Irish in the beginning of her speech. (However, her visit was greeted with a pipe bomb found on a bus to Dublin on the day of her arrival.)

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The last time a British royal head visiting Ireland was in 1911–King George V. It took a century for another British leader to cross the Irish sea  visit their neighbor. To know the bitter relationship between Ireland and Britain, you may look for films, such as Michael Collins (豪情本色) and the recent one, The Wind that Shakes the Barley (吹動大麥的風). The Northern Ireland Troubles/Conflicts also brought about suspicions and antagonism between the two countries.

Here is news about her 4-day visit to Ireland starting 17 May 2011.

BBC:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-13424403

RTE (Irish TV station):

http://www.rte.ie/news/2011/0517/queen_tracker.html

Lady Augusta Gregory:The Gaol Gate (1906)

The Gaol Gate (1906), a short play by Lady Augusta Gregory, features two women coming to Galway Gaol to look for Denis Cahel, their famiy member. It was said that he has turned informer. The playwright was Anglo-Irish–with a title “Lady". Would this background information make you see the play differently?

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The Last September (1999)

The Last September (1999), based upon Elizabeth Bowen’s novel published in 1929, is about the fall of an Anglo-Irish family during the Irish War of Independence. You may see the divides between the Irish-Irish and the Anglo-Irish, and the identity crisis which in the end turned this Anglo-Irish family out of their “homeland." The film clips are available on Youtube as follows. You are welcome to post your ideas after watching the film.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6EDmYfR9R5E

[愛爾蘭戲劇與電影] 課程部落格

This is a space especially created for those attending the course “Performing the Nation in Irish Drama and Films(愛爾蘭戲劇與電影中的國族)." You are welcome to leave comments, share internet links, post your journals, and respond to others’ works here. I am looking forward to reading your contributions and thoughts here!

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Let me welcome you all with the above link to a modern Irish dance company: Fabulous Beast

Eric Kao


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